jueves, 12 de abril de 2007

GVY: Bhajan Govindam

Bhaja Govindam
by Sri Shankaracharya

Adi Shankaracharya is widely known for his teachings on Vedanta. Shankaracharya was born in the village of Kaladi, in South India, about 2500 years ago to his Brahmin parents, Sivaguru and Aryamba. He traveled throughout India during his life, preaching and establishing four important maths, or centers, and accepted numerous disciples. He had also composed a number of verses and hymns of his knowledge and insight. However, the Bhaja Govindam is perhaps his greatest. He is still today one of the greatest influences in the present-day understanding of Vedic philosophy, with numerous schools of thought throughout India still expounding his teachings.

He primarily taught the non-dual, or advaita, form of understanding, teaching that everything is ultimately one. Many of the commentaries on the Vedic texts, such as the Brahma-samhita, the Upanishads, and others, are written with commentaries by those who follow his advaitic principles. Thus, many such texts have the impersonalistic sway to them, leaving out the idea that everything comes from a personal or Supreme Creator. However, before he left this world, he composed the Bhaja Govindam prayers that evokes the mood of devotion to Lord Govinda, Krishna.

It is in this prayer that he emphasizes above all else the importance for developing devotion for Lord Krishna, which is the principle means for attaining the Grace for the Supreme, and the freedom from further rounds of reincarnating in material existence. It is this prayer that leaves us no doubt that his final instruction was to give up our egotistical differences and surrender to Lord Krishna. It also encapsulates the sum and substance of all Vedantic thought in whatever other works that he had written.

There is a story attached to the composition of this Hymn. It is said that Shankara was walking along a street in Varanasi one day, accompanied by his disciples. He heard an old scholar teaching his grammatical rules. Taking pity on him, he went up and advised him not to waste his time on grammar at his age but to turn his mind to God in worship and adoration. The Hymn to Govinda was composed on this occasion. Besides the refrain of the song beginning with the words "Bhaja Govindam", Shankara is said to have sung twelve verses, hence the hymn bears the title "Dvadasamanjarika-Stotra" (A hymn which is a bunch of twelve verse-blossoms). The fourteen disciples who were with the Master then are believed to have added one verse each. These fourteen verses are together called "Chaturdasa-manjarika-Stotra" (A hymn which is a bunch of fourteen verse-blossoms).


bhajagovindam bhajagovindamgovindam bhajamuudhamatesampraapte sannihite kaalenahi nahi rakshati dukrijnkarane

Worship Govinda, Worship Govinda, Worship Govinda. Oh fool! Rules of Grammar will not save you at the time of your death.

mudha jahiihi dhanaagamatrishhnaamkuru sadbuddhim manasi vitrishhnaamyallabhase nijakarmopaattamvittam tena vinodaya chittam

Oh fool! Give up your thirst to amass wealth, devote your mind to thoughts to the Real. Be content with what comes through actions already performed in the past.

naariistanabhara naabhiideshamdrishhtvaa maagaamohaaveshametanmaamsaavasaadi vikaarammanasi vichintaya vaaram vaaram

Do not get drowned in delusion by going wild with passions and lust by seeing a woman's navel and chest. Bodies are flesh, fat and blood. Do not fail to remember this again and again in your mind.

naliniidalagata jalamatitaralamtadvajjiivitamatishayachapalamviddhi vyaadhyabhimaanagrastamlokam shokahatam cha samastam

Uncertain is the life of man as rain drops on a lotus leaf. Know that the whole world remains a prey to disease, ego and grief.

yaavadvittopaarjana saktahstaavannija parivaaro raktahpashchaajjiivati jarjara dehevaartaam koapi na prichchhati gehe

So long as a man is fit and able to support his family, see the affection all those around him show. But no one at home cares to even have a word with him when his body totters due to old age.

yaavatpavano nivasati dehetaavatprichchhati kushalam gehegatavati vaayau dehaapaayebhaaryaa bibhyati tasminkaaye

When one is alive, his family members enquire kindly about his welfare. But when the soul departs from the body, even his wife runs away in fear of the corpse.

baalastaavatkriidaasaktahtarunastaavattaruniisaktahvriddhastaavachchintaasaktahpare brahmani koapi na saktah

Childhood is lost in play. Youth is lost by attachment to woman. Old age passes away by thinking over many past things. Alas! Hardly is there anyone who yearns to be lost in Parabrahman.

kaate kaantaa kaste putrahsamsaaro.ayamatiiva vichitrahkasya tvam kah kuta aayaatahtattvam chintaya tadiha bhraatah

Who is your wife? Who is your son? Strange is this samsara. Of whom are you? Where have you come from? Brother, ponder over these truths.

satsangatve nissngatvamnissangatve nirmohatvamnirmohatve nishchalatattvamnishcalatattve jiivanmuktih

From Satsanga comes non-attachment, from non-attachment comes freedom from delusion, which leads to self-settledness. From self-settledness comes Jivan Mukti (liberation).

vayasigate kah kaamavikaarahshushhke niire kah kaasaarahkshiinevitte kah parivaarahgyaate tattve kah samsaarah

What good is lust when youth has fled? What use is a lake which has no water? Where are the relatives when wealth is gone? Where is samsara (the continuaiton of birth and death) when the Truth is known?

maa kuru dhana jana yauvana garvamharati nimeshhaatkaalah sarvammaayaamayamidamakhilaM hitvaabrahmapadaM tvaM pravisha viditvaa

Do not boast of wealth, friends, and youth. Each one of these are destroyed within a minute. Free yourself from the illusion of the world of Maya and attain the timeless Truth.

dinayaaminyau saayam praatahshishiravasantau punaraayaatahkaalah kriidati gachchhatyaayuhtadapi na mujncatyaashaavaayuh

Daylight and darkness, dusk and dawn, winter and springtime come and go. Time plays and life ebbs away. But the storm of desire never leaves.

dvaadashamajnjarikaabhirasheshhahkathito vaiyaakaranasyaishhahupadesho bhuudvidyaanipunaihshriimachchhankarabhagavachchharanarih

This bouquet of twelve verses was imparted to a grammarian by the all-knowing Shankara, adored as the bhagavadpada.

kaate kaantaa dhana gatachintaavaatula kim tava naasti niyantaatrijagati sajjanasam gatiraikaabhavati bhavaarnavatarane naukaa

Oh mad man! Why this engrossment in thoughts of wealth? Is there no one to guide you? There is only one thing in three worlds that can save you from the ocean of samsara. Get into that boat of satsangha (knowledge of the Truth) quickly.

jatilo mundii lujnchhitakeshahkaashhaayaambarabahukritaveshhahpashyannapi cana pashyati muudhahudaranimittam bahukritaveshhah

There are many who go with matted locks, many who have clean shaven heads, many whose hairs have been plucked out; some are clothed in saffron, yet others in various colors --- all just for a livelihood. Seeing truth revealed before them, still the foolish ones see it not.

angam galitam palitam mundamdashanavihiinam jatam tundamvriddho yaati grihiitvaa dandamtadapi na mujncatyaashaapindam

Strength has left the old man's body; his head has become bald, his gums toothless and leaning on crutches. Even then the attachment is strong and he clings firmly to fruitless hope.

agre vahnih prishhthebhaanuhraatrau chubukasamarpitajaanuhkaratalabhikshastarutalavaasahtadapi na mujncatyaashaapaashah

Behold there lies the man who sits warming up his body with the fire in front and the sun at the back; at night he curls up the body to keep out of the cold; he eats his beggar's food from the bowl of his hand and sleeps beneath the tree. Still in his heart, he is a wretched puppet at the hands of passions.

kurute gangaasaagaragamanamvrataparipaalanamathavaa daanamgyaanavihinah sarvamatenamuktim na bhajati janmashatena

One may go to the Ganga, observe fasts, and give away riches in charity! Yet, devoid of jnana, nothing can give mukthi even at the end of a hundred births.

sura mandira taru muula nivaasahshayyaa bhuutala majinam vaasahsarva parigraha bhoga tyaagahkasya sukham na karoti viraagah

Take your residence in a temple or below a tree, wear the deerskin for the dress, and sleep with mother earth as your bed. Give up all attachments and renounce all comforts. Blessed with such vairagya, could any fail to be content?

yogarato vaabhogaratovaasangarato vaa sangaviihinahyasya brahmani ramate chittamnandati nandati nandatyeva

One may take delight in yoga or bhoga, may have attachment or detachment. But only he whose mind steadily delights in Brahman enjoys bliss, no one else.

bhagavad giitaa kijnchidadhiitaagangaa jalalava kanikaapiitaasakridapi yena muraari samarchaakriyate tasya yamena na charchaa

Let a man read but a little from the Bhagavad-Gita, drink just a drop of water from the Ganga, worship Murari (Krishna) just once. He then will have no altercation with Yama (the lord of death).

punarapi jananam punarapi maranampunarapi jananii jathare shayanamiha samsaare bahudustaarekripayaa apaare paahi muraare

Born again, death again, birth again to stay in the mother's womb! It is indeed hard to cross this boundless ocean of samsara. Oh Murari! Redeem me through Thy mercy.

rathyaa charpata virachita kanthahpunyaapunya vivarjita panthahyogii yoganiyojita chittoramate baalonmattavadeva

There is no shortage of clothing for a monk so long as there are rags cast off the road. Freed from vice and virtue, onward he wanders. One who lives in communion with God enjoys bliss, pure and uncontaminated, like a child and as someone intoxicated.

kastvam ko.aham kuta aayaatahkaa me jananii ko me taatahiti paribhaavaya sarvamasaaramvishvam tyaktvaa svapna vichaaram

Who are you? Who am I? From where do I come? Who is my mother, who is my father? Ponder thus, look at everything as essence-less and give up the world as an idle dream.

tvayi mayi chaanyatraiko vishhnuhvyartham kupyasi mayyasahishhnuhbhava samachittah sarvatra tvamvaajnchhasyachiraadyadi vishhnutvam

In me, in you and in everything, none but the same Vishnu dwells. Your anger and impatience is meaningless. If you wish to attain the quality of Vishnu soon, have Sama Bhaava always.

shatrau mitre putre bandhaumaa kuru yatnam vigrahasandhausarvasminnapi pashyaatmaanamsarvatrotsrija bhedaagyaanam

Do not waste your efforts to win the love of or to fight against friend and foe, children and relatives. See yourself in everyone and give up all feelings of duality completely.

kaamam krodham lobham mohamtyaktvaa atmaanam bhaavaya ko ahamaatmagyaana vihiinaa muudhaahte pachyante narakaniguudhaah

Give up lust, anger, infatuation, and greed. Ponder over your real nature. Fools are they who are blind to the Self. Cast into hell they suffer there endlessly.

geyam giitaa naama sahasramdhyeyam shriipati ruupamajasramneyam sajjana sange chittamdeyam diinajanaaya cha vittam

Regularly recite from the Bhagavad-Gita, meditate on Vishnu in your heart, and chant His thousand glories. Take delight to be with the noble and the holy. Distribute your wealth in charity to the poor and the needy.

sukhatah kriyate raamaabhogahpashchaaddhanta shariire rogahyadyapi loke maranam sharanamtadapi na mujnchati paapaacharanam

He who yields to lust for pleasure leaves his body a prey to disease. Though death brings an end to everything, man does not give up the sinful path.

arthamanartham bhaavaya nityamnaastitatah sukhaleshah satyamputraadapi dhana bhaajaam bhiitihsarvatraishhaa vihiaa riitih

Wealth is not welfare, truly there is no joy in it. Reflect thus at all times. A rich man fears even his own son. This is the way of wealth everywhere.


praanaayaamam pratyaahaaramnityaanitya vivekavichaaramjaapyasameta samaadhividhaanamkurvavadhaanam mahadavadhaanam

Regulate the pranas (life airs within), remain unaffected by external influences and discriminate between the real and the fleeting. Chant the holy name of God and silence the turbulent mind. Perform these with care, with extreme care.


gurucharanaambuja nirbhara bhakatahsamsaaraadachiraadbhava muktahsendriyamaanasa niyamaadevamdrakshyasi nija hridayastham devam

Oh devotee of the lotus feet of the Guru! May thou be soon free from Samsara. Through disciplined senses and controlled mind, thou shalt come to experience the indwelling Lord of your heart!

muudhah kashchana vaiyaakaranodukrijnkaranaadhyayana dhurinahshriimachchhamkara bhagavachchhishhyaibodhita aasichchhodhitakaranah

Thus was a silly grammarian lost in rules cleansed of his narrow vision and shown the Light by Shankara's apostles.

bhajagovindam bhajagovindamgovindam bhajamuudhamatenaamasmaranaadanyamupaayamnahi pashyaamo bhavatarane

Worship Govinda, worship Govinda, worship Govinda, Oh fool! Other than chanting the Lord's names, there is no other way to cross the life's ocean.